Journal of Somali studies (JoSS) Volume 9, Number 3, December 2022
About This Edition
Table of Contents :
Democratization in the Ethiopian State from 2018–2021: A Mirage or Miracle? Solomon Molla Ademe and Mohammed Seid Ali 5
Since the end of the 20th century, democratization has been the mantra of many states or regimes around the world. Some regimes or states may attempt a good start to the democratization process. However, various challenges may hamper the democratization process of such regimes. This study uses the post-2018 Ethiopian leadership’s democratization attempt as a litmus test to explore such experiences of regimes. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to unpack the challenges of the post-2018 democratization process in Ethiopia. This study has been explored with a qualitative research approach. According to the findings of this study, the TPLF’s ethnicization of political changes, the proliferation of ethnic extremists, the weak matrimony of the operative and normative functions of the Prosperity Party (PP), and the PP’s failure to operate the double standard function are the tough challenges that forced the democratization process in Ethiopia to remain in the realm of mirages rather than in the domain of its miraculous beginnings. These challenges have undermined the PP regime’s attempt to democratize the Ethiopian state in post-2018. Therefore, as these challenges are mainly related to the political elites’ aspirational contradictions, Ethiopian political elites should come to a consensus to democratize the Ethiopian state.
Managing City Street Parking through Public Private Partnership Projects in the Horn of Africa: A Case Study of Multiplex Limited in Kampala City, Uganda Innocent Nuwagaba, Costa Hofisi, Alfred Ochora, Lukamba Muhiya Tshombe, Roland Muhwezi, Thekiso Molokwane & Alex Nduhura 27
This study examines the management of City Street Parking through the use of PPP projects in the Horn of Africa by focussing on Multiplex Limited in Kampala City of Uganda. There is limited knowledge on the use of PPPs to improve street parking in the Horn of Africa. Therefore, this study discussed in detail the use of PPPs to improve street parking in the Horn of Africa. The study was guided by the stakeholder management theory. The objective of the study was to examine the contribution of PPP project implementation regulation compliance to city street parking best practices in Kampala, Uganda. The study adopted the cross-sectional study design. The study covered 1,335 stakeholders of Kampala Capital City and Multiplex Limited. A sample size of 297 respondents was selected. The simple random sampling techniques were used. Data was collected using questionnaires, and literature review. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse quantitative data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Findings revealed that complying with PPP project implementation regulation leads to better city street parking. It was concluded that failure to comply with PPP regulations leads to poor parking mechanisms in Kampala City. The study recommends that Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) should ensure that all vehicle drivers always comply with PPP project implementation regulation if better city street parking is to be ensured.
Rebuilding the Fiscal Capacity in Post-conflict Somalia: A Critical Review of Public Financial Reforms and Governance Challenges Najibullah Nor Isak, Ali Yassin Sheikh Ali and Mohamed Mire Mohamed 47
Somalia is a fragile economy in which conflicts have impeded the country’s overall economic performance and fiscal capacity after the fall of the central government in 1991. With an objective to study the fiscal capacity of Somalia including reforms in taxation, spending and challenges, this study utilised the available fiscal data from 2012 to 2021, with a little preview of historical fiscal data where it makes a meaning. Furthermore, reviewing literature and interviewing fiscal experts were additionally utilised to support the descriptive data. The mixed methodology was employed to capture the depth of contemporary revenue collection and expenditure management, challenges of fiscal reforms and key policy areas to address.
The study finds that the government has made remarkable progress towards rebuilding fiscal policy, but mostly in Mogadishu, in the last decade. This progress includes revenue mobilisation, public financial management reforms, execution of the budgets, and auditing financial governance. However, many areas of the country’s fiscal policy still remain weak and fragile as chronic security challenges hinder the reach of many parts of the country for revenue collection. To strengthen these weaknesses, the study makes several policy recommendations – also applicable to other post-conflict economies with similar situations – to strengthen the foundation of the fiscal sector in Somalia.
Effects of High School Leavers’ Characteristics on the Academic Performance in Higher Education: Empirical Evidence from Rwanda Joseph Nzabanita, Innocent Ngaruye, Charles Ruranga, Emmanuel Masabo, Elias Mutezimana, Japhet Niyobuhungiro, Annie Uwimana, Jean Paul Nizeyimana, Jeanne Uwonkunda and Denis Ndanguza 73
The world aspires to achieve inclusive and quality education for all as reaffirmed in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4. This is driven by the consensus that education is one of the most powerful and proven vehicles for sustainable development. Moreover, to achieve SDG 4, Rwanda has launched several development strategies that include the provision of quality education for all, aiming at building a knowledge-based economy. One of the indicators of quality education is academic performance. However, more is to be done to understand the drivers of poor performance in higher education. This paper aimed to identify the key factors of the academic performance of undergraduate students, using the multivariable logistic regression model. Using both school leavers and academic data obtained from the Rwanda Education Board and from the University of Rwanda, this study found out that students who are more likely to perform poorly at university are those (i) who scored lower marks in the senior six national examination, (ii) who start the university at an age above 25, and (iii) who studied non-STEM programmes in secondary school. These findings might inform decision-makers and education stakeholders to develop informed policies, programmes and strategies to optimise academic performance. Adoption and implementation of those policies will help higher learning institutions to achieve higher educational outcomes.
Colonial Intervention and its Ramifications on African Contemporary Integration and Solidarity Embiale Beyene Admas and Yayew Genet Chekol 95
This paper aimed at investigating the external colonial intervention and its ramifications on African integration. To meet this objective, this study used a qualitative method, using secondary sources of data and adopting a thematic analysis technique. This paper revealed that the colonial legacy of externals impacted negatively on African states’ national integration and regional integration which is also gearing towards the emergence of neo-imperialism. Neo-imperialism has also impacted on the agency role of Africa as the continental level and individual state are weakened. Consequently, it has a terrible backlash on the integration of the continent.